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Всесвіт/Планети (395)

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Inner structure of Jupiter, cutaway illustration. Jupiter consists mainly of hydrogen and helium (around 75 percent and 24 percent by mass). Around 1 percent is other elements and chemicals. The upper layer (clouds in gaseous hydrogen) is around 50 kilometres thick. The next two layers are liquid hydrogen and a layer of helium-neon rain. At a depth of about 15,000 kilometres, the hydrogen molecules begin to dissociate and the electrons flow freely between hydrogen nuclei. The electric currents created at this point generate the planet's powerful magnetic field. Below this depth is a layer of compressed metallic hydrogen. The core consists of heavier elements (rock and ice) mixed with hyper-pressurized and hyper-heated metallic hydrogen. Jupiter has a radius of around 71,500 kilometres.

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Europa and Jupiter, illustration. Europa (centre left) is one of the moons of Jupiter (upper right), a gas giant and the largest planet in the solar system. Europa's orbit is 600,000 kilometres above the outer layers of Jupiter. The surface of Europa is made of water ice. There are no large impact craters, as it is thought that meteorites make a crater which fills with liquid water and then freezes. Europa has a diameter of 3122 kilometres, while Jupiter is around 140,000 kilometres across. The Sun is at upper left, at a distance of around 778 million kilometres.

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Europa and Jupiter, illustration. Europa (centre left) is one of the moons of Jupiter (upper right), a gas giant and the largest planet in the solar system. Europa's orbit is 600,000 kilometres above the outer layers of Jupiter. The surface of Europa is made of water ice. There are no large impact craters, as it is thought that meteorites make a crater which fills with liquid water and then freezes. Europa has a diameter of 3122 kilometres, while Jupiter is around 140,000 kilometres across. The Sun is at upper left, at a distance of around 778 million kilometres.

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Saturn from its rings, illustration. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System. Saturn is over 1.3 billion kilometres from the Sun. Its rings, only about one kilometre thick, consist of millions of rock and ice chunks. The most visible rings extend outwards from Saturn for around 120,000 kilometres. They are thought to have formed from the disintegration of a moon that was too close to Saturn or was hit by a comet or asteroid.

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Blue planet earth with circles, illustration.

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Blue planet earth with circles, illustration.

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Planet earth with circles, illustration.

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Green circles, illustration.

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Green and blue circles, illustration.

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Holographic circles, illustration.

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Holographic circles, illustration.

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World map showing connections, illustration.

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Uranus seen from Titania, illustration. From the night-time surface of Titania, the crescent discs of Uranus and its three innermost large moons glow steadily overhead. Though the planet appears about 13 times larger than our Moon does from Earth it shines as bright as only two full Moons, so feeble is the sunlight.

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Illustration of the Earth, Moon and Sun showing a passing comet. Cities are seen glistening, defining the edges of the Earth's continents. Comets are balls of loosely packed 'dirty ice'. As they near the Sun, their gases sublimate and form long tails blustering away from the star. The tails can stretch for tens of thousands of kilometres, dwarfing even the Earth-Moon separation.

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The Earth and Moon seen from space, illustration.

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The Earth seen from space, illustration.

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Illustration of a comet passing the innermost planet, Mercury, and approaching the Sun.

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Illustration of a free-floating planet. These planets are odd in that, unlike most extrasolar objects, they do not seem to be in orbit around a star - they are free-floating planets drifting between the stars and galaxies. Free floating planets such as these may result from being ejected from a protoplanetary disc due to gravitational perturbations from other massive objects. This planet has cloud bands like those of the gas giant Jupiter.

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Illustration of a free-floating planet. These planets are odd in that, unlike most extrasolar objects, they do not seem to be in orbit around a star - they are free-floating planets drifting between the stars and galaxies. Free floating planets such as these may result from being ejected from a protoplanetary disc due to gravitational perturbations from other massive objects. This planet has cloud bands like those of the gas giant Jupiter.

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Conceptual illustration of a space station, terminal or habitat in Earth orbit in the future. People are seen pointing outside, and one of them is using a telescope.

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