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Астрономія (538)

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New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto, illustration. New Horizons launched from Earth on 19 January 2006 and took nine years to reach Pluto, arriving mid-2015. Pluto (left), some 6 billion kilometres from the Sun (upper right), had never before been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. It is a small rocky, icy world with a thin atmosphere and a moon called Charon. The spacecraft used cameras and scientific equipment to gather data, sending it back to Earth with its large (2.1-metre) dish antenna. The scientific instruments include visible and infrared cameras, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, two spectrometers, a radio occultation experiment, and an interplanetary dust counter. New Horizons then continued onwards, travelling beyond Pluto to study other objects in the Kuiper Belt.

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New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto, illustration. New Horizons launched from Earth on 19 January 2006 and took nine years to reach Pluto, arriving mid-2015. Pluto (left), some 6 billion kilometres from the Sun (upper right), had never before been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. It is a small rocky, icy world with a thin atmosphere and a moon called Charon. The spacecraft used cameras and scientific equipment to gather data, sending it back to Earth with its large (2.1-metre) dish antenna. The scientific instruments include visible and infrared cameras, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, two spectrometers, a radio occultation experiment, and an interplanetary dust counter. New Horizons then continued onwards, travelling beyond Pluto to study other objects in the Kuiper Belt.

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New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto, illustration. New Horizons launched from Earth on 19 January 2006 and took nine years to reach Pluto, arriving mid-2015. Pluto (left), some 6 billion kilometres from the Sun (upper right), had never before been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. It is a small rocky, icy world with a thin atmosphere and a moon called Charon. The spacecraft used cameras and scientific equipment to gather data, sending it back to Earth with its large (2.1-metre) dish antenna. The scientific instruments include visible and infrared cameras, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, two spectrometers, a radio occultation experiment, and an interplanetary dust counter. New Horizons then continued onwards, travelling beyond Pluto to study other objects in the Kuiper Belt.

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New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto, illustration. New Horizons launched from Earth on 19 January 2006 and took nine years to reach Pluto, arriving mid-2015. Pluto (left), some 6 billion kilometres from the Sun (upper right), had never before been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. It is a small rocky, icy world with a thin atmosphere and a moon called Charon. The spacecraft used cameras and scientific equipment to gather data, sending it back to Earth with its large (2.1-metre) dish antenna. The scientific instruments include visible and infrared cameras, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, two spectrometers, a radio occultation experiment, and an interplanetary dust counter. New Horizons then continued onwards, travelling beyond Pluto to study other objects in the Kuiper Belt.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far right, orange), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a flattened version of the expansion. For curved versions and a timeline of the history of the universe, see images C042/4571 to C042/4573.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (upper left to lower right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (top left, yellow), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a curved version of the expansion. For a flattened version and labelled versions of this illustration, see images C042/4570 to C042/4573.

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rmEN_01354334_0609

Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (upper left to lower right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (top left, yellow), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a curved version of the expansion. For a flattened version and differently labelled versions of this illustration, see images C042/4570 to C042/4573.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (upper left to lower right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (top left, yellow), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a curved and labelled version of the expansion. For a flattened version and unlabelled versions of this illustration, see images C042/4570 to C042/4573.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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rmEN_01354334_0613

Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far left), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. For alternative versions of this illustration, see images C042/4574 to C042/4583.

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Cosmological constant theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a constant, originating from empty space (inset at left) and exerting an outwards force. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion forever. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as quintessence (see images C042/4588 to C042/4591). For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4585.

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Cosmological constant theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a constant, originating from empty space (inset at left) and exerting an outwards force. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion forever. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as quintessence (see images C042/4588 to C042/4591). For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4584.

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