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Chemistry/Biochemistry (975)

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Pictures

EN_01354334_0563
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Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.

EN_01354334_0564
rmEN_01354334_0564

Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.

EN_01354334_0565
rmEN_01354334_0565

Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.

EN_01354334_0566
rmEN_01354334_0566

Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.

EN_01354334_0567
rmEN_01354334_0567

Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.

EN_01354334_0568
rmEN_01354334_0568

Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.

EN_01354334_0569
rmEN_01354334_0569

Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.

EN_01354334_0570
rmEN_01354334_0570

Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.

EN_01354334_0571
rmEN_01354334_0571

Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.

EN_01354334_0572
rmEN_01354334_0572

Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.

EN_01354334_0573
rmEN_01354334_0573

Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.

EN_01354334_0574
rmEN_01354334_0574

Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.

EN_01354334_0575
rmEN_01354334_0575

Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.

EN_01354334_0576
rmEN_01354334_0576

Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.

EN_01354334_0577
rmEN_01354334_0577

Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.

EN_01354334_0578
rmEN_01354334_0578

Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.

EN_01354334_0579
rmEN_01354334_0579

Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.

EN_01354334_0580
rmEN_01354334_0580

Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.

EN_01354334_0581
rmEN_01354334_0581

Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.

EN_01354334_0582
rmEN_01354334_0582

Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.

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