Saturday, May 25, 2019
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Scientists (66)

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Pictures

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EN_00958297_0024

The Reverend Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, in an oil portrait by J. Downman.

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EN_00958297_0025

Count Rumford (1753-1814), born Benjamin Thompson, English-American physicist and reformer. Born in Massachusetts, he joined the army at 18, acting as a secret agent for the British. He fled to England in 1776 and studied projectiles. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1779. After a brief return to America, he was knighted, and appointed adviser to the Elector of Bavaria. there he reformed the army, set up welfare schemes for the poor, bred stronger horses and cattle and laid out the English Garden in Munich. He also showed, by studying the boring of cannons, that heat was due to the motion of particles in a body.

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Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), British inventor. He is best known for the Wheatstone Bridge, a device for determining the resistance of an electrical component. Wheatstone was a child prodigy, and by 15 he was translating French, including a book on electricity by Volta. Aged 19, he took over the family business of making musical instruments, but devoted his time to experiments rather than business. He made important contributions to spectroscopy, telegraphy, the physics of electricity, and even cryptography.

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Portrait of French surgeon Ambroise Pare. 1582.

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Portrait of French surgeon Ambroise Pare. 1582.

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Portrait of French surgeon Ambroise Pare. 1582.

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Charles Robert Darwin. Darwin (1809 - 1882), British naturalist, argued the theory of natural selection in his book "Origin of Species" (1859). While he was not the first to suggest the idea of evolution, he was the first to prove it with proper scientific study and argument.

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Charles Darwin (1809-1882), English naturalist and author of the Origin of Species. He suggested that natural variation in a species creates a wide range of individual characteristics some of which are more useful than others. The competition to survive in nature provides adriving force for evolution in the form of natural selection, a mechanism which weeds out those individuals possessing traits less suitable to the enviroment. The implications of his theory to man's own origins fuelled a bitter controversy with the church. Stipple engraving by C.H. Jeens from a photograph by O.G. Rejlander, about 1874.

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EN_00958297_0400

Jean-Dominique Cassini, also known as Giovanni Domenico Cassini or Giandomenico Cassini (June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) was an Italian/French mathematician, astronomer, engineer, and astrologer.

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EN_00958297_0417

Jean-Dominique Cassini, also known as Giovanni Domenico Cassini or Giandomenico Cassini (June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) was an Italian/French mathematician, astronomer, engineer, and astrologer.

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EN_00958297_0425

Claudius Ptolemy (AD c100-170), Greek-Egyptian astronomer, geographer and mathematician at his observatory in Alexandria, Egypt. Among the instruments seen here are Ptolemy's rulers (lower center) and a copper disc (far right), which he used to demonstrate the law of reflection. At this observatory Ptolemy made the observations that supported Earth-center models of solar and planetary motion. This view dominated astronomical thinking until the mid 16th century. Engraving from Vies des Savants Illustres (1877).

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Claudius Ptolemy (AD c100-170), Greek-Egyptian astronomer, geographer and mathematician at his observatory in Alexandria, Egypt. Among the instruments seen here are Ptolemy's rulers (lower center) and a copper disc (far right), which he used to demonstrate the law of reflection. At this observatory Ptolemy made the observations that supported Earth-center models of solar and planetary motion. This view dominated astronomical thinking until the mid 16th century. Engraving from Vies des Savants Illustres (1877).

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Anders Celsius, Nov. 27, 1701 to April 25th, 1744. Swedish scientist and astronomer. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 he proposed the Celsius temperature scale.

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Anders Celsius, Nov. 27, 1701 to April 25th, 1744. Swedish scientist and astronomer. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 he proposed the Celsius temperature scale.

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Portrait of Alessandro Cagliostro, alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo; also called Joseph Balsamo, an Italian adventurer. (June 2, 1743- August 26, 1795).

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Portrait of Alessandro Cagliostro, alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo; also called Joseph Balsamo, an Italian adventurer. (June 2, 1743- August 26, 1795).

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Professional astrologer. Predicted the great fire of 1666.

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Professional astrologer William Lilly. Predicted the great fire of 1666.

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Claude-Louis Berthollet (1748-1822), French doctor and chemist. Berthollet graduated in medicine, but by 1780 his work in the new science of chemistry led to his admission to the French Academy of Sciences. Berthollet supported the theories of Lavoisier, but correctly disagreed with him by proposing that some acids do not contain oxygen. His book Essai de statique chimique (1803) was the first systematic work on chemical physics. He also worked on a wide range of chemicals, as well as dyes and gunpowder. Berthollet was a friend of Napoleon Bonaparte and was made a count (Comte Berthollet), but in 1814 he helped depose Napoleon as Emperor, 'for the good of France'. 19th-century engraving.

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At the age of 14, Tycho Brahe was amazed to find out that astronomers could exactly fortell an eclipse of the sun. Determined to study astronomy, he bought a globe and books with his own money.

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