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Передісторія (639)

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Зображення

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Illustration of a giraffatitan dinosaur. Giraffatitan was previously thought to be a species of brachiosaurus (B. brancai) but is now thought to belong to a separate genus. These animals were sauropods, four-legged, plant-eating dinosaurs from the Jurassic period. They reached a maximum length of about 26 metres and weighed up to 40 tonnes. The skeletons of Brachiosaurus and Giraffatitan, although coming from different continents (America and Africa, respectively) look almost identical to the untrained eye, so this picture could represent either animal.

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Illustration of a giraffatitan dinosaur. Giraffatitan was previously thought to be a species of brachiosaurus (B. brancai) but is now thought to belong to a separate genus. These animals were sauropods, four-legged, plant-eating dinosaurs from the Jurassic period. They reached a maximum length of about 26 metres and weighed up to 40 tonnes. The skeletons of Brachiosaurus and Giraffatitan, although coming from different continents (America and Africa, respectively) look almost identical to the untrained eye, so this picture could represent either animal.

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Illustration of a giraffatitan dinosaur mother and infant. Giraffatitan was previously thought to be a species of brachiosaurus (B. brancai) but is now thought to belong to a separate genus. These animals were sauropods, four-legged, plant-eating dinosaurs from the Jurassic period. They reached a maximum length of about 26 metres and weighed up to 40 tonnes. The skeletons of Brachiosaurus and Giraffatitan, although coming from different continents (America and Africa, respectively) look almost identical to the untrained eye, so this picture could represent either animal.

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Illustration of a giraffatitan dinosaur. Giraffatitan was previously thought to be a species of brachiosaurus (B. brancai) but is now thought to belong to a separate genus. These animals were sauropods, four-legged, plant-eating dinosaurs from the Jurassic period. They reached a maximum length of about 26 metres and weighed up to 40 tonnes. The skeletons of Brachiosaurus and Giraffatitan, although coming from different continents (America and Africa, respectively) look almost identical to the untrained eye, so this picture could represent either animal.

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Terror bird (Titanis walleri) with prey, artwork. This extinct, flightless bird lived in North and South America approximately 2-5 million years ago. It stood 2.5 metres tall weighed roughly 150 kilograms. It belonged to the Phorusrhacidae family of carnivorous flightless birds, commonly referred to as the terror birds. Like other members of its family, Titanis had a huge head with a large curved beak, powerful claws and tiny wings. The prehistoric horse shown as killed prey and in the background are ^IHipparion sp^i.

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Archaeopteryx. Artwork of the prehistoric feathered reptile Archaeopteryx which lived around 150 million years ago. Discovered in 1861 in southern Germany, it was the first feathered fossil specimen ever found. Despite possessing bird-like feathers, wings and a wishbone, Archaeopteryx also had sharp teeth, finger digits and a bony tail similar to non-bird predatory dinosaurs. This species and numerous other feathered fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Aurornis. Artwork of the prehistoric feathered reptile Aurornis which lived around 160 million years ago. Discovered in 2013 in China, it is considered the oldest known example of a bird-like dinosaur. Despite possessing feathers, wings and a wishbone, Aurornis also had sharp teeth, forelimb digits and a bony tail similar to non-bird predatory dinosaurs. It was not capable of powered flight but may have been able to glide. This species and numerous other feathered fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Confuciusornis. Artwork of the prehistoric bird Confuciusornis which lived around 125-120 million years ago. Discovered in 1993 in Liaoning, China, specimens had bird-like wings and feathers, short tail bone with long tail feathers and a toothless beak. The wings possessed small claws. The large number of fossils discovered suggests that it lived in large flocks. This species and numerous other feathered fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Enantiornithes. Artwork of prehistoric birds from the group Enantiornithes which existed 129-66 million years ago. Seen here flying in flocks and perched on top of Parasaurolophus dinosaurs. With well developed wings and feathers Enantiornithes were capable of powered flight. They also possessed clawed finger digits and toothed jaws similar to their non bird-like dinosaur ancestors. This species and numerous other feathered fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Hesperornis, prehistoric bird, artwork. This species of bird lived 84-78 million years ago. With strong hindlegs and long, streamlined body, it was ideally adapted to an aquatic environment. Its long slender neck and toothed beak help it to capture prey but it had only tiny wings and was not capable of flight or even much use in swimming.

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Ichthyornis, prehistoric bird, artwork. This species of bird lived 95-85 million years ago. They are seen here attacking a pterosaur. Ichthyornis possessed toothed beaks and were very capable flyers. They are thought to have lived in a niche very similar to modern day seagulls.

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Microraptor, artwork. This prehistoric feathered dinosaur lived around 125-120 million years ago. It possessed long bird-like feathers on its tail, arms and legs and may have been capable of powered flight, although gliding ability is more likely. This species and numerous other feathered fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Patagopteryx (Patagopteryx deferrariisi), prehistoric bird, artwork. This species, depicted here following a herd of sauropods, lived in Patagonia, Argentina around 80 million years ago. With only small wings and no wishbone, they were unable to fly. However its skeleton reveals that ancestors of Patagopteryx could once fly, making it the earliest example of secondary flightlessness in bird evolution. The discovery of numerous feathered dinosaur fossils support the theory that modern day birds evolved from prehistoric theropod dinosaurs.

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Height variation in Pleistocene hominids. Artwork and scale chart showing the variation in height for three male hominids (right) compared to modern humans (chart at left). These reconstructions are based on fossil bones found at the Sima de los Huesos site in the Atapuerca Mountains of northern Spain. The fossils date from around 500,000 years ago during the Pleistocene. The three hominds are (left to right): Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and the Cro-Magnon form of early modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). The height calculations were made by researchers at the Human Evolution Laboratory at the University of Burgos, Spain.

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration entitled "Cosmic Museum I". A spacecraft is seen coming in to land on Earth in the Triassic era in order to capture a Stegosaurus (foreground) to be exhibited in a Cosmic Museum on another planet.

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Entelodon. Artwork of a pack of Entelodon magnus, a large pig-like animal that existed approximately 37-28 million years ago. This species belonged to a group of extinct mammals known as entelodonts. Their fossil teeth suggests they were omnivores.

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nothosaurus. Artwork of the extinct marine reptile Nothosaurus mirabilis chasing a school of fish. This species measured four metres in length and lived during the Triassic (240-210 million years ago). It is thought that Nothosaurs may have evolved into plesiosaurs, a carnivorous group of aquatic reptiles that existed 190-65 million years ago).

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Placodus. Artwork of the extinct marine reptile Placodus gigas. It measured two metres in length and lived during the late Triassic (210 million years ago).

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prehistoric turtles. Artwork of two Proganochelys quenstedti mating. This extinct species of turtle existed approximately 210 million years ago. It measured about one metre in length and resembled modern turtles except for its long spikey tail.

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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Carcharodontosaurus dinosaur, artwork. This carnivorous dinosaur lived around 100 million years ago. It measured around 12 metres long and weighed an estimated 10-15 tons, making it one of the largest predatory dinosaurs.

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