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Земля/Природа явища (626)

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Earth's airglow. Image showing the different colours of airglow that appear at varying altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere (from top to bottom: exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere). Airglow is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere that occurs when atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, excited by sunlight, emit light to shed their excess energy. Airglow constantly shines throughout Earth's atmosphere creating a 'bubble' of light that encases the entire planet. The composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes causes different colours of light to be emitted and this effect can be used to study the different layers of the atmosphere, such as temperature, density, and composition.

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Earth's airglow. Image showing the different colours of airglow that appear at varying altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere (from top to bottom: exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere). Airglow is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere that occurs when atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, excited by sunlight, emit light to shed their excess energy. Airglow constantly shines throughout Earth's atmosphere creating a 'bubble' of light that encases the entire planet. The composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes causes different colours of light to be emitted and this effect can be used to study the different layers of the atmosphere, such as temperature, density, and composition.

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Earth's airglow. Image showing the different colours of airglow that appear at varying altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere (from top to bottom: exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere). Airglow is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere that occurs when atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, excited by sunlight, emit light to shed their excess energy. Airglow constantly shines throughout Earth's atmosphere creating a 'bubble' of light that encases the entire planet. The composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes causes different colours of light to be emitted and this effect can be used to study the different layers of the atmosphere, such as temperature, density, and composition.

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Scandinavian heat wave, July 2018, satellite image. This image shows land surface temperatures from 1st-15th July 2018, compared to the 2000-2015 average for the same period. Areas that are hotter than normal are red, those that are cooler are blue. These unusually high temperatures, along with a dry spell, lead to the outbreak of more than 40 wildfires in Sweden, the most serious in the country's modern history. Image based on data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite.

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This image may not be used to state or imply ESA endorsement of any company or product El Nino. Computer illustration showing the conditions that lead to the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (bottom), compared to normal weather conditions (top). El Nino is the warm phase of the El Nino/La Nina-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), an intermittent disruption of the climate system that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean roughly every five years. Normally the trade winds push warm water into the western Pacific, with cold water upwelling in the East, this produces a warm pool of water in the western equatorial Pacific. During an El Nino year the trade winds slow down or reverse direction. These weaker winds can no longer hold the warm pool in the west, so the warm water surges back along the equator towards South America. As warm water produces rain, the movement of the warm pool shifts the weather pattern and as El Nino develops, the rain follows the warm water eastward into the central equatorial pacific.

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Iran's Musa Bay on the northern end of the Persian Gulf is pictured in this image from the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on 13 January 2017. Near the centre, we can see the port city of Bandar Imam Khomeini, situated at the terminus of the Trans-Iranian Railway - a route that links the Persian Gulf with Iran's capital, Tehran. The dark area to the right of the port is Musa Bay, a shallow estuary. The large geometric structures along the top appear to be evaporation ponds for extracting naturally occurring minerals from the ground. The left side of the image is dominated by the marshes and mudflats of the Shadegan wildlife refuge. It is the largest wetland in Iran, and plays a significant role in the natural ecology of the area. The area provides a wintering habitat for a wide variety of migratory birds, and is the most important site in the world for a rare species of aquatic bird: the marbled duck. The northern part of the wetland is a vital freshwater habitat for many endangered species. This area is considered a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention, an intergovernmental treaty for the sustainable use of wetlands. Credit: ESA / eyevine

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Impact ejecta is material that is thrown up and out of the surface of a planet as a result of the impact of an meteorite, asteroid or comet. The material that was originally beneath the surface of the planet then rains down onto the environs of the newly formed impact crater. Some of this material is deposited close to the crater, folding over itself to form the crater rim, visible here as a yellowish ring. Other material is ejected faster and falls down further from the crater rim creating two types of ejecta: a "continuous ejecta blanket" and "discontinuous ejecta." Both are shown in this image. The blocky area at the center of the image close to the yellowish crater rim is the "continuous" ejecta. The discontinuous ejecta is further from the crater rim, streaking away from the crater like spokes on a bicycle. Photo Credit: NASA / eyevine For further information please contact eyevine tel: +44 (0) 20 8709 8709 e-mail: info@eyevine.com www.eyevine.com

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This panorama, photographed by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station, shows nearly the full length of Lake Powell, the reservoir on the Colorado River in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Note that the ISS was north of the lake at the time, so in this view south is at the top left of the image. At full capacity, the reservoir impounds 24,322,000 acre-feet of water, a vast amount that is used to generate and supply water to several western United States, while also aiding in flood control for the region. It is the second largest reservoir by maximum water capacity in the United States (behind Lake Mead). Landscape elevation changes are hard to see from space, but astronauts learn to interpret high and low places by their color. Green forests indicate two high places in the image that are cooler and receive more rain than the dry, low country surrounding the lake. The isolated Navajo Mountain is a sacred mountain of the Native American Navajo tribe and rises to 3,154 meters (10,348 feet). The long, narrow Kaiparowits Plateau rises nearly 1200 meters (4,000 feet) from Lake Powell to an elevation of more than 2300 meters (7,550 feet). More than 80 kilometers (50 miles) long, the plateau gives a sense of horizontal scale. The region draws nearly 2 million people every year, even though it is remote and has few roads. Most of the area in view is protected as part of the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument?the largest amount of protected land in a U.S. national monument. Photo Credit: NASA / eyevine For further information please contact eyevine tel: +44 (0) 20 8709 8709 e-mail: info@eyevine.com www.eyevine.com

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A river delta usually leads to the open sea, but the delta formed by the Okavango River is different. After rising in Angola and flowing through Namibia, the river meanders into Botswana, where it branches out to create an inland delta - one of the world's most important wetlands. Wetlands, both coastal and inland, are important for people and the environment. Their many benefits include acting as natural safeguards against disasters, protecting communities most vulnerable to the devastating effects of floods, droughts and storm surges. They also provide a habitat for a multitude of animals and plants, and filter and store water. Every year, 2 February marks World Wetlands Day. It commemorates the Convention on Wetlands also known as the Ramsar Convention, which was signed on 2 February 1971 to provide a framework for national and international cooperation for the conservation and use of wetlands and their resources. This year's theme is 'Wetlands for Disaster Risk Reduction'. Well-managed wetlands provide resilience for communities against extreme weather and help to minimise the damage from these hazards. Coastal wetlands such as mangroves protect against flooding and serve as buffers against saltwater intrusion and erosion. Inland wetlands such as floodplains, lakes and peatlands and deltas like Okavango can reduce the risk of drought. Credit: ESA / eyevine

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This photograph from northwestern New Mexico shows a ridge roughly 30 feet about 10 meters tall that formed from lava filling an underground fracture then resisting erosion better than the material around it did. The dike extends from a volcanic peak (out of view here) called Shiprock in English and Tse Bit'a'?, meaning "rock with wings," in the Navajo language. It offers an Earth analog for some larger hardened-lava walls on Mars Photo Credit: NASA / eyevine For further information please contact eyevine tel: +44 (0) 20 8709 8709 e-mail: info@eyevine.com www.eyevine.com

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An area over the western end of the US state of Texas is pictured in this image from the Sentinel-2A satellite from 13 March 2016. Sentinel-2 is the 'colour vision' satellite mission for Europe's Copernicus environment monitoring programme - the name spawning from its high-resolution multispectral instrument. The scene pictured here, however, is rather devoid of colour owing to the landscape's sparse vegetation cover. Some colour does appear along the rivers and streams where plants thrive more easily. In the upper left, large circles of agriculture from central-pivot irrigation systems appear green. In the central-left portion of the image, one area appears orange where the land may have a different mineral content. On the upper-right side of the image, we can see a cluster of hills of the Sierra Madera crater, formed less than 100 million years ago when a meteorite hit Earth. In the lower-right corner, we can see a network of oil wells connected via a spiderweb-like structure of supply roads. Underground oil reservoirs usually stretch across large areas, and multiple wells are positioned over the reservoirs to best exploit the natural resource. Texas is the top crude oil-producing state in the US, accounting for about a third of the country's output. Credit: ESA / eyevine

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Budapest, Hungary's capital, is bisected by the River Danube. Its 19th-century Chain Bridge connects the hilly Buda district with flat Pest. A funicular runs up Castle Hill to Buda's Old Town, where the Budapest History Museum traces city life from Roman times onward. Trinity Square is home to 13th-century Matthias Church and the turrets of the Fishermen's Bastion, which offer sweeping views. Credit: ESA / eyevine

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Zodiacal light over an observatory. The night sky lit by zodiacal light above the Paranal platform on Cerro Paranal mountain, Chile. This is the home of ESO's (European Southern Observatory) Very Large Telescope (VLT) array, the world's most advanced ground-based astronomical observatory. One of the 8.2-metre VLT Unit Telescopes, and a 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescope can be seen at right.

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A Broken Spectre on Red Screes in the Lake District, Cumbria, UK.

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^BArtificial cloud.^b View of a spectacular nocti- lucent cloud after sunset. This "cloud" was formed from the exhaust of a missile launched from a distant firing range. Noctilucent clouds are those which reflect the Sun's light after it has set, which requires that they be at high altitude. The uppermost parts of this cloud are iridescent (nacreous), having the appearance of mother-of- pearl. Natural nacreous clouds occur at altitudes of 20-25 kilometres. The lower parts of this cloud are redder due to the scattering of blue light by the large amount of dust and water in the lower atmosphere. Its convoluted shape is due to the differing wind speeds at different altitudes.

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Barringer Crater, also known as Meteor Crater, Arizona, USA. The crater is about 170 metres deep and 1200 metres in diameter. It was formed by an iron meteorite that collided with the Earth approximately 50,000 years ago.

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Lake Yanisyarvi, Republic of Karelia, Russia. The basin for this lake was formed by a meteorite impact 700 million years ago. It measures 14 kilometres in diameter. Water is blue, vegetation is green and land cleared for agriculture is brown. Image taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite on 5th September 1999.

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Lonar Crater lake, India, Satellite image. The basin for this saltwater lake was formed by a meteorite impact roughly 50,000 years ago. The crater is 1.8 kilometres in diameter and 137 metres deep. Image taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite on 29th November 2004.

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Pingualuit crater, satellite image. This impact crater (blue circle at centre left) is in northern Quebec, Canada. The crater measures 3.4 kilometres in diameter, is 400 metres deep and holds a freshwater lake. The crater was formed by a meteorite impact roughly 1.4 million years ago.

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Nicholson crater, satellite image. This crater, in the Northwest Territories, Canada, was formed by a meteorite impact 400 million years ago. Water is dark blue, ice is light blue. The crater measures 12.5 kilometres in diameter and contains a lake. Image taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite on 6th July 2000.

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