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EN_01354334_0413
rmEN_01354334_0413

Elastic potential energy in a spring, computer illustration. Elastic potential energy is the energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, for example the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the displacement of the spring (x) and the spring constant, a characteristic of the spring. Hooke's law states that the displacement of the spring (x) is proportional to the force acting on it (red arrow).

EN_01354334_0414
rmEN_01354334_0414

Elastic potential energy in a spring, computer illustration. Elastic potential energy is the energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, for example the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the displacement of the spring (x) and the spring constant, a characteristic of the spring. Hooke's law states that the displacement of the spring (x) is proportional to the force acting on it (red arrow).

EN_01354334_0415
rmEN_01354334_0415

Elastic potential energy in a spring, illustration. Elastic potential energy is the energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, for example the stretching or compressing of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch or compress the spring, which depends upon the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium length, and the spring constant, a characteristic of the spring. Hooke's law states that the displacement of the spring is proportional to the force acting on it (red arrows).

EN_01354334_0416
rmEN_01354334_0416

Elastic potential energy in a spring, illustration. Elastic potential energy is the energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, for example the stretching or compressing of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch or compress the spring, which depends upon the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium length, and the spring constant, a characteristic of the spring. Hooke's law states that the displacement of the spring is proportional to the force acting on it (red arrows).

EN_01354334_0417
rmEN_01354334_0417

Archer with a longbow, illustration. As the arrow is drawn back on the bowstring, work is done by the archer applying force over a distance. The force that the archer applies is called the draw weight. This force bends the limbs of the bow and the work done is converted into elastic potential energy stored in the bow. The potential energy is then rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the arrow is released.

EN_01354334_0418
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Archer with a longbow, illustration. As the arrow is drawn back on the bowstring, work is done by the archer applying force over a distance. The force that the archer applies is called the draw weight. This force bends the limbs of the bow and the work done is converted into elastic potential energy stored in the bow. The potential energy is then rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the arrow is released.

EN_01354334_0419
rmEN_01354334_0419

Archer with a longbow, illustration. As the arrow is drawn back on the bowstring, work is done by the archer applying force over a distance. The force that the archer applies is called the draw weight. This force bends the limbs of the bow and the work done is converted into elastic potential energy stored in the bow. The potential energy is then rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the arrow is released.

EN_01354334_0420
rmEN_01354334_0420

Archer with a longbow, illustration. As the arrow is drawn back on the bowstring, work is done by the archer applying force over a distance. The force that the archer applies is called the draw weight. This force bends the limbs of the bow and the work done is converted into elastic potential energy stored in the bow. The potential energy is then rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the arrow is released.

EN_01354334_0421
rmEN_01354334_0421

Slingshot or catapult, illustration. The Y-shaped frame of a slingshot is held in one hand, and the other hand grasps the pocket containing a projectile. The work done as the pocket is drawn back is converted into elastic potential energy in the stretched rubber bands attached to the frame. This elastic potential energy is rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the projectile is released.

EN_01354334_0422
rmEN_01354334_0422

Slingshot or catapult, illustration. The Y-shaped frame is held in one hand, and the other hand grasps the pocket containing a projectile. The work done as the pocket is drawn back is converted into elastic potential energy in the stretched rubber bands attached to the frame. This elastic potential energy is rapidly converted into kinetic energy as the projectile is released.

EN_01354334_0423
rmEN_01354334_0423

Experimental demonstration of Hooke's law, illustration. Hooke's law relates the effects on bodies of stress and strain, and states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied to it, within the elastic limit. Here, the spring on the left is at its equilibrium length. In the centre, the addition of one weight produces a force (F) on the spring resulting in an extension (x). The addition of a second weight doubles the force (2F) and doubles the extension (2x).

EN_01354334_0424
rmEN_01354334_0424

Hooke's law, illustration. Experimental demonstration of Hooke's law. Hooke's law relates the effects on bodies of stress and strain, and states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied to it, within the elastic limit. Here, the spring on the left is at its equilibrium length. In the centre, the addition of one weight produces a force (F) on the spring resulting in an extension (x). The addition of a second weight doubles the force (2F) and doubles the extension (2x).

EN_01354334_0425
rmEN_01354334_0425

Mass and weight, illustration. A one kilogram mass being weighed on a newton meter. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter an object contains, and is constant in any situation. Weight, on the other hand, is a measure of the effect of gravity on mass, and thus varies as the gravitational field does. The newton meter is reading 9.8 Newtons as Earth's gravitational field produces an acceleration of approximately 9.8 metres per second per second. On the Moon, whose gravity is one sixth of Earth's, one kilogram would weigh approximately 1.6 Newtons.

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rmEN_01354334_0426

Mass and weight, illustration. A one kilogram mass being weighed on a newton meter. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter an object contains, and is constant in any situation. Weight, on the other hand, is a measure of the effect of gravity on mass, and thus varies as the gravitational field does. The newton meter is reading 9.8 Newtons as Earth's gravitational field produces an acceleration of approximately 9.8 metres per second per second. On the Moon, whose gravity is one sixth of Earth's, one kilogram would weigh approximately 1.6 Newtons.

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rmEN_01354334_0427

Weighing an apple on a newton meter, illustration. A newton meter uses a spring to measure weight, quantifying it in Newtons (N). Weight is a measure of the effect of gravity on mass. An apple weighs approximately 1 Newton. A falling apple is said to have inspired Newton's work on gravity.

EN_01354334_0428
rmEN_01354334_0428

Weighing an apple on a newton meter, illustration. A newton meter uses a spring to measure weight, quantifying it in Newtons (N). Weight is a measure of the effect of gravity on mass. An apple weighs approximately 1 Newton. A falling apple is said to have inspired Newton's work on gravity.

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rmEN_01354334_0429

Inertia magic trick, illustration. Flicking the card makes the coin on it fall directly into the glass. This trick is used to demonstrate the physical law of inertia. This law was defined by Isaac Newton as the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion, unless acted on by an external force.

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rmEN_01354334_0430

Tablecloth trick, illustration. If the crockery is heavy enough, rapidly pulling off the tablecloth can leave the plates and cups on the table, without spilling the contents. This trick is used to demonstrate the physical law of inertia. This law was defined by Isaac Newton as the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion, unless acted on by an external force.

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rmEN_01354334_0431

Car crash, illustration. A car in a head-on collision with a wall. Upon contact with the wall, force acts upon the car to abruptly decelerate it to rest. The bonnet is designed to crumple and absorb the energy of the impact, thereby protecting driver and passengers.

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rmEN_01354334_0432

Car crash, illustration. A car in a head-on collision with a wall. Upon contact with the wall, force acts upon the car to abruptly decelerate it to rest. The bonnet is designed to crumple and absorb the energy of the impact, thereby protecting driver and passengers.

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