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EN_01314036_1069
rmEN_01314036_1069

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1070
rmEN_01314036_1070

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1071
rmEN_01314036_1071

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1072
rmEN_01314036_1072

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1073
rmEN_01314036_1073

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1074
rmEN_01314036_1074

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01314036_1075
rmEN_01314036_1075

Brain and brain waves in epilepsy, computer illustration. This EEG (electroencephalogram) illustration shows generalized epilepsy, affecting the whole brain cortex: all the EEG traces show chaotic brain waves. Epilepsy can take many forms, and have different effects. This could illustrate both benign epilepsy (inherited childhood form that normally improves with age), and myoclonic epilepsy (form that causes muscle contractions). An EEG measures electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp.

EN_01202638_0001
rmEN_01202638_0001

Fen-phen. Herbal Fen-phen tablets. Fen-Phen is a non-prescription weight loss supplement. This drug is a mixture of Pondimin (fenfluramine), Redux (dexfenfluramine), and phentermine to suppress appetite. The amphetamine-like attributes of Fen-phen have been known to lead to heart valve damage, neuropsychological damage, and pulmonary cardiovascular damage.

EN_01202638_0002
rmEN_01202638_0002

Vicodin, Hydrocodone 7.5mg with acetaminophen 750mg, combines a narcotic analgesic (pain killer) and cough reliever (antitussive) with a non-narcotic analgesic (Acetaminophen) for the relief of moderate to moderately sever pain and relief of coughing. Caution: habit forming narcotic.

EN_01202638_0003
rmEN_01202638_0003

^BPaxil antidepressant tablet.^b This tablet contains ten milligrams of the drug ^Iparoxetine^i ^Ihydrochloride^i. This is prescribed to treat anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Paroxetine is a member of a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These prolong the action of the brain chemical serotonin, which is important in regulating moods.

EN_01202638_0004
rmEN_01202638_0004

Vioxx (rofecoxib) is an NSAID of the Cox-2 inhibitor family and is used to treat arthritis and pain. Vioxx was withdrawn from the market worldwide by its manufacturer, Merck, when lengthier FDA tests revealed its association with a significantly greater risk of heart attack and stroke.

EN_01202638_0005
rmEN_01202638_0005

Avandamet diabetes drug tablets. This drug, which contains the active ingredients rosiglitazone and metformin, is used to treat type II diabetes. It controls blood sugar levels by reducing the production and secretion of glucose by the liver and increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Avandamet requires that some insulin is produced by the pancreas and so cannot be used to treat type I diabetes. Rosiglitazone has been linked to an increased risk of heart attacks and heart failure.

EN_01163426_0002
EN_01163426_0002

Single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans in axial section showing a normal brain (at left) and the brain of a patient with mitochondrial encephalopathy (MELAS, at right). The MELAS brain has an absence of striatum on two sides of the brain (upper part). MELAS (or Lactic Acidosis) is a form of dementia caused by mutations in the genetic material in mitochondria of the cells. Brain dysfunction includes seizures, stroke-like episodes and abnormal thinking (dementia). Intravenous injection of Tc-99m-ECD.

EN_01151355_0045
rmEN_01151355_0045

Antibody response. Computer artwork of antibody, or immunoglobulin, molecules attacking a cell. The y-shaped molecules have two arms that can bind to specific antigens, for instance viral or bacterial proteins. In doing this they mark the antigen for destruction by phagocytes, white blood cells that ingest and destroy foreign bodies. Antibodies can also kill some pathogens directly and can neutralise toxins.

EN_00966015_0001
rmEN_00966015_0001

Close-up illustration showing a cancerous breast cell producing too many HER genes, which in turn produce an excessive number of HER2 receptors. The receptors attract growth factors, which stimulate the growth of more cells. Herceptin (generic name, trastuzumab) and other antibodies inhibit HER2 receptors and VEGF growth factors.

EN_00966025_0001
rmEN_00966025_0001

Illustration of human ovary inflammations. Shown on the left is a kinking of the fallopian tube that has been caused by adhesions (fibrous bands) that can result from pelvic inflammation. Shown on the right is a fully developed abscess of the ovary. The uterus is shown in the center.

EN_00966026_0001
rmEN_00966026_0001

Illustration of a human uterus and ovaries. Shown is a comparison of a normal ovary (left) to an ovary with small ovarian cysts (right). Also shown are a normal uterus (left side) and a uterus with fibroids (right side). The colon is shown at the bottom of the illustration.

EN_00966027_0001
rmEN_00966027_0001

Illustration of the prostate gland (white, heart shaped) and bladder, showing a narrowing of the prostate opening, which causes urine (yellow) to back up from the urethra into the bladder. The background shows the kidneys and ureters.

EN_00966028_0001
rmEN_00966028_0001

Illustration of a laparoscopy, in which a small incision is made in the abdomen and the laparoscope is inserted to view internal female organs. The ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and colon are shown.

EN_00966029_0001
rmEN_00966029_0001

Illustration of the cesarean section (birth) of a human baby, showing retraction of the mother's abdomen walls. Also depicted are the umbilicus, skin, subcutaneous fat, uterus, and umbilical cord.

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